Monday, July 13, 2020
Ginkgo Biloba Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, and Interactions Holistic Health Print The Health Benefits of Ginkgo Biloba Can Ginkgo Biloba Boost Your Brain Health? By Cathy Wong Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Caitilin Kelly, MD on November 22, 2019 Caitilin Kelly, MD, is a clinical physician at Indiana University Health Bloomington Hospital and is board-certified in internal medicine. Learn about our Medical Review Board Caitilin Kelly, MD Updated on February 03, 2020 More in Self-Improvement Holistic Health Happiness Meditation Stress Management Spirituality Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships View All In This Article Table of Contents Expand Health Benefits Possible Side Effects Dosage and Preparation What to Look For View All Back To Top Ginkgo biloba is an antioxidant-rich herb used to enhance brain health and treat a variety of conditions. Although dietary supplements typically contain extracts of the plants leaves, ginkgo biloba seeds are commonly used for healing purposes in traditional Chinese medicine.?? Ginkgo contains numerous flavonoids, compounds which proponents suggest can protect against aging-related issues such as dementia by improving blood flow to the brain, among other benefits. Health Benefits Ginkgo biloba is said to aid in the treatment or prevention of the following health problems: Age-related macular degenerationAlzheimers diseaseAnxietyAsthmaBronchitisDepressionErectile dysfunction FatigueGlaucomaHigh blood pressureInsulin resistanceMultiple sclerosisPeripheral artery diseaseSexual dysfunction in womenTinnitus In addition, ginkgo biloba is said to preserve memory, as well as promote recovery from stroke. Scientific studies support some, but not all ginkgo benefits.?? Heres a look at the science behind the potential health benefits of ginkgo biloba: Brain Health So far, studies testing ginkgo bilobas effects against aging-related declines in brain health have yielded mixed results. A review of studies using the standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 found the supplement to be more effective than placebo in most cases of Alzheimers disease, and vascular or mixed dementia.?? The review was unable to identify a consistent benefit for using Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions. Eye Health Ginkgo biloba shows promise in the treatment of glaucoma and other eye diseases. Ginkgo biloba contains natural properties that act as antioxidants and improve blood flow. This effect has been shown to reduce retinal degeneration. Theres also evidence of Ginkgo biloba producing color vision improvements for patients with diabetic retinopathy.?? Blood Pressure Its too soon to tell whether ginkgo biloba can help treat high blood pressure, according to a research review published in Phytomedicine in 2014.?? Although six of the nine reviewed clinical trials found that gingko biloba may help reduce blood pressure, the herb did not appear to have significant effects on blood pressure in the other three trials. Since most of the reviewed studies were considerably flawed, the reviews authors state that more rigorous research is needed before ginkgo biloba can be recommended for blood pressure control. Possible Side Effects Verywell / Jessica Olah Ginkgo biloba may trigger the following side effects: allergic skin reactions, diarrhea, digestive problems, dizziness, headaches, muscle weakness, and nausea. Since ginkgo biloba may affect blood clotting, it shouldnt be used by people with bleeding disorders or those who are taking medication or supplements that affect blood clotting, such as warfarin, aspirin, garlic, vitamin E and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some cases of bleeding have occurred in individuals who were not on another blood thinner. Individuals with epilepsy or diabetes should also avoid use of ginkgo biloba, unless the herb is taken under the supervision of a medical professional. Pregnant women shouldnt take ginkgo. Given the number of medications and supplements that may interact with ginkgo, its a good idea to consult your primary care provider before taking ginkgo. Ginkgo contains a compound called ginkgotoxin. Although ginkgotoxin is found in the largest amounts in ginkgo nuts, its also present in small quantities in the leaves. Structurally similar to vitamin B6, it has been found to block vitamin B6 activity. According to one case report, a woman developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts and had lowered blood vitamin B6 levels. After treatment, which included vitamin B6 medication, her symptoms resolved and no seizures recurred.?? Dosage and Preparation There is no established standard dose for gingko biloba. Different formulations and doses have been used in research studies investigating the herbs effect on various conditions. The right dose for you may depend on several factors, including your age, gender, medical history, and formulation used. As always, speak with your healthcare provider to get personalized advice regarding the right dose for you. What to Look For Gingko is known by many other names, including bai guo ye, yinhsing, and fossil tree. But the supplement is most popularly known as gingko biloba and you will most likely see it on store shelves labeled as such. Many health food markets and vitamin shops sell this product. To make sure that you get the proper dose, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that you look for a Supplement Facts label on the product that you buy. This label will contain vital information including the amount of active ingredients per serving. You can also find out if other ingredients have been added to the product such as fillers, binders, and flavorings. Lastly, the organization suggests that you look for a product that contains a seal of approval from a third-party organization that provides quality testing. These organizations include U.S. Pharmacopeia, ConsumerLab.com, and NSF International. A seal of approval from one of these organizations does not guarantee the products safety or effectiveness but it does provide assurance that the product was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label, and does not contain harmful levels of contaminants.
Tuesday, June 30, 2020
In The Tragedy of King Lear, William Shakespeare drags his audience through horrific tragedy to get to the core of truth. Violence, pain, betrayal, and finally death come crashing down upon almost every character, good or bad. This peeling away of pleasantries is fundamental to the meaning of the play. Shakespeare begs his audience to shed the false coverings created by a manmade society. These constraints include language, clothing, and other artificial institutions such as wealth and royalty. The play shows us how these created controls break down in the face of nature. In the end, there is nothing stronger than blood, the very essence of a human being. However, the audience has also witnessed the tie of blood marred by intoxicating forces like greed and power. Since even the deepest truths can become hidden by mans false boundaries, the role of recognition becomes one of the plays strongest points. Recognition is an enlightened form of sight, which is one of the clear themes of th e play. It takes a kind of inner vision to see through the artificial and comprehend the real. Recognition requires both seeing and knowing. The play closely examines this relation, between what is seen and what is true, ultimately turning to insight as the crucial foundation. Through the struggle to find ones own core identity beneath all of societys labels, Shakespeare proves that no true knowledge occurs without understanding the self.To know truth is to see through its many illusions, its masks. The destruction of common modes of faÃ §ade is deeply rooted in Shakespeares treatment of language. One cannot say he is only attacking language, as the play itself is a web of skillfully woven words. Instead, he shows how the power of words can become dangerous when their purpose, as a representation of something deeper, is forgotten. The opening scene sets up the entire plot with a play of words, in which Lear demands flattery of his daughters to prove their love. Right away, a dichot omy is developed: love is the essential, and affectionate words serve man as its lesser representation. Although Cordelias language is more basic, her truth is pure. When she says I love your Majesty according to my bond, no more nor less, (I.i, l.92) she perhaps seems too frank and unnecessarily blunt. The audience is falling into a trap, beginning their own struggle to recognize what is real. It may seem that Cordelia is selfish in her refusal to simply flatter her father. Her loving sisters appear to obey their father, therefore respecting him by societys standards. This is precisely the kind of assumption that we, as a flawed human audience, are used to making. It is therefore the sort of opportunity that Shakespeare takes in making his point. Immediately, the dangers of language begin to appear. Lears decision to banish Cordelia is obviously rash, and the distrust inspired by Cordelias stubborn refusal shifts its focus to the King who places so much in the shallow world of word s. A king whose identity requires flattery clearly lacks crucial insight. This is the first step in a developing uneasiness, a tone of uncertainty that will pass into utter madness to teach us a lesson. We have to wonder: Is Cordelia so wrong in her denial of language as truth? The play proceeds to prove she is not.One manner in which the play deconstructs language is by showing us where it fails in several instances. Some of the most moving moments in the play are those that deliberately, and literally deny the power of words. When the Gentleman returns from delivering tragic news to Cordelia, he tells Kent of her tears and sorrow (IV.iii). In a tone of awe, he explains It seemd she was a queen/Over her passion, who, most rebel-like,/Sought to be king oer her (IV.iii, ll.14-16). Here, Cordelia has the control of a queen over her emotions, but remains honestly subject to them, allowing them to show. She willingly displays her interior, this cautious passion which we have seen contr ol her in the past. When, Kent demands Made she no verbal question? (IV.iii, l.23) the Gentlemans description proves her beyond the realm of words: Faith, once or twice she heavd the name of/father/Pantingly forth, as if it pressd her heart;/Cried, ÃÅ'Sisters, sisters! Shame of ladies, sisters!/Kent! father! sisters! what ith storm? ith night? (IV.iii, ll.24-29). Cordelias grief is stunningly real because it eludes the boundaries of language in refusing form. There are no complete sentences here, but single words and fragments that mirror the disintegration of Lears kingdom. Her emotion is too pure to be constrained by formalities of grammar, the useless rules created by society to guide communication. This is one of Shakespeares expositions of the essential through a breakdown of the formal.The idea of language as an illusion of truth becomes a theme in that it expands to include many characters and instances in the play. Cordelia may be the most consistent or obvious rebel in the fight for the essential, but she is hardly the only the character who illuminates this conflict through her use of words. There are references made to things unspeakable, such as the Gentlemans observation that Lears state is A sight most pitiful in the meanest wretch,/Past speaking of in a king! (IV.vi, ll.204-205) or the Fool warns of dangerous times When Priests are more in word than matter (III.iv, l.81). These passing illusions to a world beyond words, or the inadequacy of words in grave matters, are half-hidden signposts, quietly leading their audience to a certain conclusion. There are other signals, subtle hints in the language that serve the larger point of betraying its own inherent transparency. One method seen throughout the play, is the use of repetition. The moments when Lear wails Now, now, now, now (IV.vi, l.172), Never, never, never, never, never (V.iii, l.309), or No, no, no, no (V.iii, l.8), are a few of such repetitions, which all occur in the latter stages of h is madness, when he has realized the truth of his situation. This not only shows us another character who surpasses formal language in an enlightened state, but allows Shakespeare to comment upon the nature of what is achieved through this abandonment of form. Single words repeated many times drills their limited nature into our minds. The redundancy certainly displays a simplistic quality that is beneath the emotional weight. But it also shows that man instinctively overrides his own rules in moments of truth.Language is a double edged sword in its limitations and its potential for power. The intense influence of language operates in dangerous ways when it becomes more important than its own point. Beyond the initial dilemma created by Lears reliance on courtly flattery, a series of dangerous and dishonest letters set several injustices into motion. Goneril and Regan send letters constantly, containing treason plots against their father and each other (Edmund creates a false letter to vilify Edgar, eventually causing Edgars banishment. This early scene is proceeded by an interesting soliloquy, which serves to draw the audiences attention immediately to the power of words. All of Edmunds vengeful hatred clearly comes from the label society has placed on him, as he demands Why bastard? Wherefore base?/When my dimensions are as well compact,/My mind as generous, and my shape as true,/As honest madams issue?/Why brand they us/With base? With baseness? bastardy? base, base? (I.ii, ll.6-10). Again, the use of repetition pounds single words into our heads. Edmunds frustration is something universal in humanity, as everyone is placed into categories that must be limiting by their very nature as categories. A king is also a human being, a man, and a mortal. As the Fool (who consequently trumps language himself by proving to be wise) points out, Lear himself is as much the fool. He warns Lear that All thy other titles thou hast given away, that thou wast born with (I.i v, ll.149-151). All of this aligns with Edmunds plight, that a bastard deserves acceptance in society despite the name that proceeds him. The consequences of letting ones titles (mere words), become their reality, are played out in the behavior of Lear and Edmund. The flattery that made Lear too confident in his power leads to Cordelias banishment, which is the first in a chain of tragic events. Shakespeare is showing us the other side of the coin, as the hatred bred in Edmund sparks the parallel plot by avenging the word that damns him.Other artificial constraints are largely noted in the play, accompanying the critique of language in this larger commentary on mans failure to perceive ultimate truth. Shakespeare often includes clothing as a motif. Like language, it is a layer that stands between human beings, affecting their ability to recognize what is truly before them. Therefore, seeing it peeled away is a crucial return to the pure human being. Just like the first scene, where love is the truth and flattery its shoddy representation, clothing is an artificial construction that has gained too much power. This is perhaps most poignant in Lears desire to tear of his clothing as he begins the process of seeing clearly. He is in the depths of madness when he tells the naked Edgar Thou art the thing itself (III.iv, l.106), speaking quite directly to this question of ultimate truth. The thing itself refers to some pure actuality that has been hidden, just as the naked body is covered by clothing. Lear continues referring to this essential thing, in the lines that follow this insight. He wildly decides unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor, bare, forkd/animal as though art. Off, off, you lendings! Come,/unbutton here, as the stage directions warn he is Tearing off his clothes (III.iv, ll.106-109). The image of a great king tearing off his clothes in search of truth is laden with meaning for everyone in the audience. We sit and watch, bearing the same hum an bodies beneath our clothes, abused as outer signifiers of classifications like rank, and wealth. The return to nakedness recalls the innocence of the Garden of Eden, before the fall, when truth was not masked by base human concepts like shame or lust.In the moment of embracing nudity, the faÃ §ade of clothing becomes an object aligned with the Lear of Act I, the man deceived by the customs of his court. Evil characters are taken up in the nature-versus-clothing polemic. One example is a description of the devious Oswald, when Kent tells him You cowardly rascal, Nature disclaims in thee: a/tailor made thee (II.ii, ll.54-55). What appears a clever turn of phrase is yet another subtle hint on Shakespeares part. When Lear is realizing the truth about Goneril and Regan, he exclaims Allow not nature more than nature needs,/Mans life is cheap as beasts. Thou art a lady;/If only to go warm were gorgeous,/Why, nature needs not what thou gorgeous wearst,/Which scarcely keeps thee warm (I II.i, 267-270). This is a crucial moment in Lears growing understanding of truth. The repetition of nature signals a crucial epiphany. Nature becomes synonymous with truth, as it is weighed against the two deceptive daughters. This is also the speech which corresponds with the beginning of the storm, the ultimate symbol of natures power of mankind.The famous storm of Act III is crucial in emphasizing the importance of casting off manmade controls. To rush outside in the rain is a recognizable rebellion against reason and experience. Lear must challenge what he has learned in the false world to find new terms of identification. He realizes that he has lived with false comforts far beyond simple flattery, and begins to uncover the worlds injustices when he sacrifices his physical comfort. In one of many revelatory moments, he sees the importance of compassion, which is really a form of recognition: Take physic, pomp,/Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel,/That thou mayst shake th e superflux to them,/And show the heavens more just (III.iv, ll.32-35). Here is a great king finally recognizing the plight of his people by experiencing it. The storm is necessary to humble him, proving the great power of nature above all. Artificial categories of nobility and royalty are useless in the face of essential truth. And the symbolism of water only furthers this idea of moving beyond such shallow constraints. The suggestion of cleansing is very clear. Lears false assumptions are washed away, while Goneril and Regan are comfortably taking cover (III.i). He has shown himself and his audience that he will risk his physical self to gain understanding. In the process of facing natures awesome power, he is baptized in a new faith. Now he believes in the power of truth, and the importance of struggling to embrace it.Lear emerges from the storm with new insight and joins the ranks of the enlightened. Those who try to see beyond assumptions become a solid group, albeit crazy, gro up as the play progresses. Having established clear demarcations between the essential and its distortions, Shakespeare imbues certain characters with the ability to understand this difference. In the groups of characters, the ability to recognize truth is synonymous with honest intentions and inherent goodness. Cordelia, Kent, Edgar, and even Gloucester all share the vision which disposes of artificial complications. The play opens with Kent and Gloucester recognizing something amiss in the kingdom. In the first two lines, Kent wonders I thought the King had more affected the Duke of Albany than Cornwall, and Gloucester responds It did always seem so to us; but now in the division of the kingdom, it appears not which of the Dukes he values most (I.i, ll.1-5). They are imbued with the gift of recognition, the ability to compare what seemed true to them and what appears before their eyes. They play will prove that Albany is the better man, thus weighting their initial perception on t he side of truth. Cornelia, Kent, and Edgar all display a visionary quality, the ability to know what they see. Kent claims (to the Gentleman) Sir, I do know you (III.i, l.17), just as Edgar tells Oswald I know thee well; a serviceable villain, (IV.vi, l.252) and Cornelia chillingly warns her sister I know what you are (I.i, l.269). This ability to securely know is only associated with the characters who are banished by the court (Edgars flight being a kind of banishment, as he cannot return home at penalty of death). This quality of intensified vision is only available to the individual who stands at odds with the kingdoms reasoning, and/or embraces their sense of self, which they know to be pure in the face of false condemnation.Just as the good characters always see a higher truth, the bad characters fall victim to the boundaries of their society. They are preoccupied with shallow notions of hierarchy, and fail to see through even the most obvious lies. Goneril is not so bothered by her fathers mad rants as she is by his disregard for social form. She faces a man losing his identity, and continually whines You strike my people,/And your disorderd rabble make servants of their betters (I.iv, 255-257). Regan displays blindness in her understanding of other people. Her vision is defined by her need for power, rather than the any level of reality. The audience can clearly see her blindness. She calls Gloucester treacherous villain, and in the same sentence names Edmund too good to pity thee, (IV.i, ll.88-90). Both sisters also fall into Edmunds trap, despite witnessing his potential for betrayal. This is perhaps the most obvious display of their tendency to see the world as they want to see it, as it is fashioned for them on its surface, rather than digging deeper to find truth.Shakespeares proposed recognition means more than understanding what is before us. He shows us how seeing what is around us begins with recognizing what is within. Characters that prove they can find essential truth in the world are also those who know, deep down, who they are. Cordelia reveals a firm self-possession when Lear repeatedly questions her resolve in denying flattery, in the following encounter:Lear: But goes thy heart with this?Cor.: Ay, my good lord.Lear: So young, and so untender?Cor.: So young, my lord, and true. (I.i., ll.104-107)Her swift confidence in renaming untender as true betrays the assurance of self-knowledge. She shows she knows her heart, and therefore herself. She also clearly knows that this is more important than the wealth of her inheritance, or the embellishment of her fathers pride. Kent and Cordelia prove their faith in their own morality by their capacity for sacrifice. They are willing to risk their lives, and undergo horrific banishment, to avoid compromising their secure values. This is a conscious alignment with the essential in life, which is beyond the mortal human body or the comfort of the home. Cordelia can root her disobedience in acts, in reality. She can recognize her own morality, and rationally considers it with Good my lord,/You have begot me, bred me, lovd me: I/Return those duties as are right fit,/Obey you, love you, and most honor you (I.i, ll.96-98). Moments later, Kent defends his true duty in a similar manner when he states Royal Lear,/Whom I have ever honord as my king,/Lovd as my father,/As my master followd,/As my great patron thought on in my prayers (I.i, l.140). Here, the honest Kent and Cordelia call upon past behavior to determine truth, as opposed to empty words that could easily flow forth with falsehood. Their ability to see the essential truth of the world is rooted in this confident self-assurance, a quality that defends their inherent goodness.The gaze that directs simultaneously inward and outward proves to the penetrating in other ways. Shakespeare also shows us the danger of losing sight of oneself. Lears journey through madness begins with a flawed recognition, an inability to known himself, and a mistaken move outward for definition. He searches for tools of self-identification, demanding Does any here know me? This is not Lear./Does Lear walk thus? speak thus? where are his eyes?/ÃÅ /Who is it that can tell me who I am? (I.iv, 226-230). He is on the wrong path, asking the outside world to define him. This uncertainty of self follows his inability to recognize the purity of Cordelias truth. The meaning of recognition in the play is utterly contained in Lears pitiful questioning: The man who loses sight of his identity, having fallen victim to the power of the courts shallow flattery and other customs, is in dangerous territory. Lear now relies on this shallow world to define his being. Edgar speaks this moral lesson in the closing lines of the play, drawing our attention to the debate between core truth and societal representation. Shakespeare is reminding us that importance of enlightened recognition has been one of his major themes by cl osing with The weight of this sad time we must obey,/Speak what we feel, not what we ought to say (V.iii, ll.324-325). The power to see inward and outward is one and the same. It is the power of true recognition, a vision imbued with knowledge of the self.King Lear demands much of its audience in focusing on the space between reality and its modes of representation. It bears similarities to many of his other plays in the decision to turn typical assumptions upside down. Shakespeare is constantly reminding us that truth is not a simple concept. To approach it, one must embrace lifes contradictions. Madness inspires understanding, blindness lends sight, and humanity proves more complex for its simplicity. Recognition is a theme that runs throughout the landscape of his work. It is aptly contained in the medium of the play. The process of performance is the act of simultaneously looking and thinking. An audience connects to the scenes, the characters, the situations, that speak to som ething within themselves. This sets the scene, so to speak, for introspection. In a world without explanations, King Lear is one play that suggests we turn inward for the answers. If we can experience the tragedies of kingdoms, we can apply their lessons to our everyday life. Within each of us is a Lear, momentarily lost in the comfort of false assumptions, searching for ourselves in other peoples eyes. Shakespeare simply provides the teachers, crashing into each other on the proscenium before our very eyes, to help us find our way.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
The American Civil War: Three Perspectives Jason M. Russell Reedley College History 11 Introduction The analysis of how the Southern States lost the Civil War is based on three articles, each with a different perspective. According to Died of Democracy by David Donald, the Confederates were defeated because of internal challenges facing the 11 Sothern States seeking independence. Some of the challenges facing the Confederate States of America included a predominantly agricultural economy and slave revolts. In Why the South Lost by Beringer et al., the authors argue that the Confederates lost because of their weak nationalism, which was constantly undermined by the feelings of guilt over slavery. ConfederatesÃ¢â¬â¢ nationalism had shallow foundations, which caused the Southern to lack the will to fight for their nation. In the Blue over Grey: Why the North Won George Frederickson articulates that the North prevailed over the South because the NorthÃ¢â¬â¢s social system was more adaptive to the changing present. From the accounts of the war, it is clear that Southern States had t he will to fight for their ideologies and social system. The Southern society was less innovate and adaptive; however, the internal challenges facing the Confederates states of America is the best explanation for why the South lost the Civil War. The American Civil War: Three Perspectives According to Died of Democracy by David Donald (1960), unlike the Northerners who were not facing internal challenges,Show MoreRelatedEssay about The American Civil War688 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe American Civil war was a series of transactions, or exchanges, between the North and the South. These transactions involved over 1 million Americans who put their lives at risk for the liberation of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s slaves. 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Tuesday, May 19, 2020
From the regression analysis, it is clear that the growth length of the root of the raddish seeds and the concentration of the toxins from the altissima are strongly negatively correlated. It is clear that the growth in root length is significantly affected by the concentration of toxins from the altissima (R2=0.93), P= p=0.001). As the concentration of the toxins produced by altissima increases, the rate of root length reduces significantly. It is observed that raddish seeds growth in root length is highest at the lowest concentration. However, the highest germination percentages were noted in a condition of distilled water and at low toxin concentration. Toxin concentration significantly caused a significant impact on the rate of growth in root length decreasing with the increasing concentration. At higher concentration, the rate of increase in root length in the raddish seeds was significantly lower relative to lower concentration. It is worth noting that seeds tend to recover, f ollowing their transfer from the concentrated environment to the distilled water. Final recovery percentages of germination in higher concentration treatments were found to be significantly higher as compared to the none-concentrated controls. We will write a custom essay sample on Allelopathic Effect of Tree of Heaven on Radish Seed or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This indicates that the exposure of the seeds to higher concentration tend to permanently inhibit root growth. It is also clear that the pH values of the aqueous extracts affect root growth. It was also observed that there was a strong correlation between the concentration of toxins from the altissima and germination. Statistically, it is observed that root growth is significantly affected by the concentration of altissima (R2=0.93), p=0.001). However, the highest rate of germination was noted in a condition of low concentration. Concentration significantly roots growth with the rate of root growth decreasing with the increasing concentration. At higher concentration, the root growth rate was significantly lower relative to lower concentration. Notably, seeds tend to recover well in terms of root growth, following their transfer from the altissima concentrated environment to the distilled water.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What is the difference between MD, PhD, PsyD, Ed. D, MA, MSE? The MD degree is a doctorate awarded to clinicians who have undertaken an extended period of scientific and medical research. It provides an opportunity for doctors to receive recognition of research achievement within an approved academic program. The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is the granddaddy of all graduate level degrees - the highest and most prestigious degree the world over. PhDs in Psychology are offered in a variety of specialized fields of study with wide ranges in their area of focus and career intents. Mental health fields include PhD s in clinical or counseling psychology. Applied PhD s include Industrial/Organizational, Human Factors Engineering, Sports Performance and Forensic among others. Research Psychology PhD s are offered in almost every subfield such as social psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology and experimental psychology. The level of empirical research required during a program varies by field of study. The Doctorate of Psychology Degree (PsyD.) is a relatively new offering, geared for those who are more interested in the practice of psychology and will have less emphasis on research and more focus on applied topics. The degree was born as an alternative to the traditional PhD and is very attractive to those whose career interests are limited to applied practice of the profession. A PsyD degree will allow you to work andShow MoreRelatedRandomised Controlled Trials Essay1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn science, and in clinical trial research, making data accessible to the research community is essential. 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Amusing Ourselves to Death; Mediums, Friend or Foe? Electronic media is inferior to print media due to the fact that electronic media can be bias, selective, and evasive for the purpose of entertainment. Electronic media serves as a form of entertainment with a main goal of serving their ratings rather than serving the people. It would seem that Postman would agree with this theory since he describes electronic media as a form of entertainment rather than a reliable source of information and facts in his book Amusing Ourselves to Death. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start by taking a look at the bias side of electronic media. Take for instance the difference between Fox News and CBS. Both are news stations, both are intended to bring us the news, yet theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Earlier this week, the FBI officially transferred the Chandra Levy investigation to its Cold Case unit, which historically has handled only the toughest of cases, which have few clues. [Rest of story] RATHER: You may want to keep in mind the case remains officially a Ã¢â¬Å"missing personÃ¢â¬ case. No crime has been established, no one has been accused by lawmenÃ¢â¬âof anything, much less formally charged. No oneÃ¢â¬â¢s been charged with breaking any laws. (Dan Rather and Jim Stewart, CBS Evening News, 7/18/01) While the contrasts between the two are obviously different where one depicts that Condit is the cause of the problem, the other clearly states just the facts. My second point is that Electronic Media tends to become evasive while broadcasting. They tend to focus on points that were based on opinion rather than facts so that they may receive more ratings, in turn create more profit. I once again turn to the same story of Chandra LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance. Although CBS just states the facts, Fox News states opinions in their polls, news article headings, and their complete coverage of the story, while focusing on Mr. Condit (Fox News 7/15/01). Fox News gained high ratings for the Chandra Levy story, only because they fed off of the icon, Gary Condit. Bringing a celebrity into anything makes it more interesting because he or she is more widely known. Now when you have titles such as Ã¢â¬Å"ConditÃ¢â¬â¢s Acting GuiltyÃ¢â¬ (Dana Blanton, Fox News 7/07/01), you will haveShow MoreRelatedNeil Postmans Amusing Ourselves to Death: A Review1566 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿No Longer Fun Neil Postmans Amusing Ourselves to Death is a trenchant piece of social commentary about the very nature of society at the time of his writing in the final decades of the 20th century. The book assesses the importance of television in the lives of its viewers, and denotes how that importance itself shapes those lives and, by extension, the surrounding world. The particular time in which this manuscript was published is immensely significant, since it occurred a year after 1984Read More Postmans Amusing Ourselves to Death Essay678 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPostmans Amusing Ourselves to Death I have just read Postmans Amusing Ourselves to Death. Postman states that the age of typography has been replaced by the age of television. This has changed the way we look at the world and the way we think, which in turn has almost made us less intelligent. Postman speaks his opinions freely, and really gives the reader a new perspective on media, and the effect it has on society. To often we think nothing of what we see and read in the media, but afterRead MoreAnalysis of Neil Postmans Amusing Ourselves to Death1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessay about television) but rather warning that a society that acquires all (or even nearly all) of its information from television is acquiring that information in a passive way. While such a form of interaction with the world is fine in terms of amusing oneself (as his title indicates), it is harmful in terms of engaging with serious matters. And it is especially harmful when it comes to arenas of life in which communication among people is imperat ive. Among such arenas is the participation inRead MoreAnalysis Of Neil Postmans Amusing Ourselves To Death959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In Neil PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s book Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Postman argues that the information shared with the American populace is shaped by the forms of media that are used. By giving a history of the changing types of American media and the effect that each has on the information given, Postman supports his claim. PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to prove that media changes the information given to the public in order to call awareness to the validity of our news. Postman writes to an audience who is educatedRead MoreLogos Ethos Pathos1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ In Neil PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Amusing Ourselves to Death, he argues that rationality in America has become dictated by television. Through the use of ethos, pathos, and logos, Postman demonstrates that his claim is valid and reliable. These are three forms of persuasion that are used to influence others to agree with a particular point of view. Ethos, or ethical appeal, is used to build an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Ethos establishes a sense of credibility and good character for the author (Henning). Pathos, orRead More Postman: Rant or Reason? Essay1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPostman: Rant or Reason? In his novel, Amusing Ourselves to Death, author Neil Postman describes to the reader, in detail, the immediate and future dangers of television. The arguement starts out in a logical manner, explaining first the differences between todays media-driven society, and yesterdays typographic America. Postman goes on to discuss in the second half of his book the effects of todays media, politics on television, religion on television, and finally televised educationalRead MoreAmusing Ourselves For Death By Neil Postman1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the second part of Neil PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Amusing Ourselves to Death, the author examines the medium of education in order to exhibit how it has affected and fashioned modern public discourse. Postman uses a two-part argument on the topic of the influence that television has over education. In order to properly demonstrate the authors view and evidence on this subject of discourse, as well as my own, I will explore how television presents e ducation as well as how exactly television has managed toRead More Truth Exposed in Amusing Ourselves to Death Essay1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesExposed in Amusing Ourselves to Death Ã Neil Postman is deeply worried about what technology can do to a culture or, more importantly, what technology can undo in a culture.Ã In the case of television, Postman believes that, by happily surrendering ourselves to it, Americans are losing the ability to conduct and participate in meaningful, rational public discourse and public affairs.Ã Or, to put it another way, TV is undoing public discourse and, as the title of his book Amusing Ourselves to DeathRead MoreChapters 1 and 2 Amusing Ourselves to Death by Neil Postman Essay1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSummary Essay of Amusing Ourselves to Death This is a breakdown of Neil Postmans Amusing ourselves to death(1985), which must be written to explain the effects that high volume of emails, text messages, video games, and internet television has on the human race and the way we think. In the first chapter of the book The Medium is the Metaphor Postman (1985) begins his argument that he presents through out the book. Postman (1985) explains how knowledge is no longer gained from print, butRead MoreNeil Postman s Exploration Of This Issue1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescausing damage to the people that were raised in the TV era. Neil PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s exploration of this issue in his novel written in 1985, Amusing Ourselves to Death, is a crucial hint of the consequences of being immersed in a culture that is driven by television. Even though it has been 20 years since the book was published the influx of internet only makes his novel more and more relevant to today than it was when it was written PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s key argument is the comparison of two tremendously different imagined
Background of Thomas Sydenham (Father of Clinical Observation) Name: Thomas Sydenham Date of Birth: 10 December 1624 Place of Birth: Wynford Eagle Education: * Commenced the study of medicine at Magdalene Hall, Oxford in 1642 * After 2 months interrupted his studies to participate in the civil war on the parliamentary side * He returned to the university in 1645 to enter Wadham College to become a physician * Received his Bachelor of Medicine in 1648 * Studied with Christopher Wren about natural scientists conducting physiological experiment at Oxford Achievement: Become a Ã¢â¬Å"Captain SydenhamÃ¢â¬ at the first civil war in 1654 * Married with Mary Gee (1654) * Nominated to Parliament in 1659 (but not elected) * Become a licentiate of the Royal College of Physician * Received a doctorate from Pembroke College, Cambridge (1676) Year of Death: 1689 Cause of death: Gout and Renal disease (left three sons: William (also a physician), Henry and James) Contribution of Thomas Sydenham to the Medic World It was in London in the middle of the 1650Ã¢â¬â¢s Thomas Sydenham began his exacting studies of epidemics. There was much contribution that has been made by him during his studies about epidemics. The contribution that he had been made was: * Form the basic book on fever on 1666 * Observationes Medicae a standard textbook for two centuries on 1676 * Presented the theory of an epidemic constitution, Eg. We will write a custom essay sample on Epidemiology : History on Thomas Sydenham or any similar topic only for you Order Now Conditions in the environment which cause the occurrence of acute diseases (1683) * He noted the link between fleas and typhus fever * Introduced opium into medical practice and was the first to use iron-deficiency anaemia * Treatment fever with fresh air and cooling drink was an improvement on the sweating methods previously employed * Moderate treatment of smallpox by using cinchona Ã¢â¬Å"SydenhamÃ¢â¬â¢s choreaÃ¢â¬ aka. St Vitus Dance * Differentiation between gout and rheumatism, scarlet fever and measles, malaria and other fever, and chorea and St Vitus Dance * Write a description about dysentery, pneumonia, mental disease, tuberculosis, influenza, trigeminal neuralgia, croup and syphilis There are some of observation that was a Thomas SydenhamÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution has been revolutionized by medical practice in 17th century there are: * Discovery of circulation by Harvey * A philosophy of science by Bacon Disease by Ramazzini * Microscopic revelation by Malpighi and Leewnhoek Philosophy, concept, theory and any thought by Thomas Sydenham One of the famous Thomas SydenhamÃ¢â¬â¢s theories is SydenhamÃ¢â¬â¢s chorea and also known as St. Vitus Dance. Discovery by him on 17th century. SydenhamÃ¢â¬â¢s chorea Definition: The disease that characterized by rapid or uncoordinated jerking movement affecting primarily the face, feet and hand. Causes: * Cerebra vascular accidents * Collegen vascular disease * Drugs intoxication * Hyperthyroidism WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease * HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease * Infectious disease Treatment: * Penicillin * Behavioral and emotional changes may precede the movement disorders * Haloperidol, pimozide, clonidine * Treatment with steroids One of famous philosophy by Thomas Sydenham: Ã¢â¬Å"A disease, however much its causes may be adverse to the human body, is nothing more than an effort of Nature, who strives with might and main to restore the health of the patient by the elimination of the morbid humorÃ¢â¬ Medical Observation, section 1, chapter 1. How to cite Epidemiology : History on Thomas Sydenham, Papers